Good morn­ing, every­body. I’d like to draw your atten­tion to this book that I did­n’t write. It’s by Klaus Schwab. On page three, it talks about the ele­ments of the fourth indus­tri­al rev­o­lu­tion, of veloc­i­ty, breadth and depth, and sys­tems impact. So, as my slides begin, what you’ll see is a group of my stu­dents work­ing in a lab using 3D print­ing tech­nolo­gies, using advanced elec­tron­ics, and using advanced open sys­tem soft­ware. Open sys­tem computer-aided design and computer-aided man­u­fac­tur­ing software.

From that lab, an enor­mous veloc­i­ty is being cre­at­ed for the stu­dents to come out of that lab. And I have to con­fess to my own sur­prise the kind of prod­ucts that come from that group. Shown here, these cat ear­phones that came from that group. Basically that’s just karaoke that you can engage in with your friends.

On the left is Stella, in the mid­dle is Colin, on the right-hand side is Nicole. Can you believe that that group, com­ing out of that lab in only eigh­teen months cre­at­ed a prod­uct that was sold by Brookstone, using these kind of 3D print­ers that you see in the top left?

As we began this work in 1987, 1990, going through that peri­od, 3D print­ers were pret­ty clum­sy. But now, as shown in the bot­tom right, they’re faster, they’re cheap­er, they’re much more pre­cise and much more accu­rate. So, as we go clock­wise in this slide, we go through the process now where we can actu­al­ly print the chem­i­cals for a bat­tery. Shown in the bot­tom right, which is part of our new start-up called Imprint Energy, that’s being used for a vari­ety of new prod­ucts. And now, Nicole could print her own bat­ter­ies to suit the design that she wants to create.

Now, going to the sec­ond part of my framed talk on the breadth and the depth, let’s look at the depth. The depth now is that we can not only print the bat­tery shown there, but we can inte­grate it with the elec­tron­ics shown on the bot­tom part of this slide. So, we have a bat­tery sys­tem print­ing over the electronics.

And my col­league Jim Evans, his grand­son is shown on the right there, where we print­ed a greet­ing card for Jim when he was sick. And the card was able to sort of per­son­al­ize the greet­ing to his grand­fa­ther, and even the pills that are shown on the left told Jim when he should take his night­time med­ica­tions. And so we have prod­ucts now which have got these inte­grat­ed processes.

Coming to the breadth now, instead of the depth, we’re try­ing to cre­ate scale-up of these prod­ucts to larg­er ener­gy sys­tems, which is the pas­sion that we have in this meet­ing. Also, it’s man­u­fac­tur­ing and it’s clean ener­gy. These bat­tery sys­tems [shown] here in the print­ing device, and you can see some of our sys­tem is being print­ed there. 

And now we’ve done the cal­cu­la­tions to show that we can use tra­di­tion­al print­ing meth­ods from anoth­er Cal cam­pus, which is in the top slide, using the print­ing tech­nol­o­gy on the left. You’ll see my grad­u­ate stu­den­t’s feet on the right there, where the first anodes of a zinc-based sys­tem are being print­ed out to cre­ate print­ed devices which we’re scal­ing in the future (This is the breadth of this.) through these pan­els, which ares sim­i­lar to the Tesla vision of hav­ing print­ed pan­els around in your house to back up the solar ener­gy that you’re going to col­lect from the sun. So there’s a wide vari­ety of man­u­fac­tur­ing tech­niques that are also being scaled. 

In the future… This is a very impor­tant slide. It shows my stu­dents towards the left of the slide. On the bot­tom right is a gen­tle­man in a fac­to­ry, and that fac­to­ry could be any­where. But the key ele­ment is in the very top right, these arti­fi­cial intel­li­gence apps that are telling my stu­dents, Is this design that you made manufacturable?”

In this slide, stu­dents are mak­ing those ear­rings on the right. They need to make a mold. They don’t know any­thing about cost­ing, they don’t know any­thing about injec­tion mold­ing. But they need and app to tell them whether the design they have is man­u­fac­turable in one piece or whether it needs to be split up into sev­er­al pieces to get made. So, it’s the in-depth knowl­edge about man­u­fac­tur­ing that with these AI tech­niques is being lift­ed up to the design environment.

When we go to the fac­to­ry now, the big design sys­tems in the cen­ter of this slide are con­nect­ed to the mobil­i­ty in the fac­to­ry. The Internet of Things are all over the fac­to­ry machines. The fac­to­ry machines now are con­nect­ed to the main part of the fac­to­ry, but as we go for­ward, also they’ll be con­nect­ed to Nicole and the stu­dents in my lab.

When they fin­ished the design, they’ll be able to tweak it accord­ing to those AI infor­ma­tion tech­niques that come from the apps. They’ll be able to com­mu­ni­cate with the fac­to­ry, which could be on anoth­er side of the world, begin to see how their pro­duc­tion gets made, and if nec­es­sary track their pro­duc­tion as the pro­duc­tion is going through. Just like you get an infor­ma­tion­al your FedEx par­cel is on the way, Nicole will get infor­ma­tion that our fac­to­ry sys­tem is work­ing smooth­ly and they’re get­ting feedback.

Maybe, if they need more or less of those com­po­nents, when she wakes up in the morn­ing she’ll go to her bath­room and then have a dis­cus­sion with one of the fac­to­ry per­son­nel, maybe be on the oth­er side of the world, telling her whether the pro­duc­tion is going well, if the right num­ber of com­po­nents are being made. Hey, it’s the hol­i­day sea­son, too. We should ramp up to a larg­er num­ber of com­po­nents. And I want to do that, and make it con­nect­ed to the IoT devices in the fac­to­ry, to the fac­to­ry per­son­nel, and to the design­ers themselves.

This is very excit­ing, but the ques­tion I ask you to think about: We now have the oppor­tu­ni­ty [of] includ­ing the whole of the world in this activ­i­ty. We want to make sure there’s growth around inclu­siv­i­ty. We want to make sure that every­body has access to this kind of sys­tem. At Berkeley, we believe it’s the edu­ca­tion­al route for­ward. There’s absolute­ly necessary…shown in my very first slides. We want to include all peo­ple. Maybe some­body that does­n’t have access to that man­u­fac­tur­ing can real­ly get onto the Internet and design some­thing spe­cial, even like those ear­rings, a fair­ly sim­ple device.

But at the same time, with­out the right edu­ca­tion, peo­ple could get left behind. So, this fourth indus­tri­al rev­o­lu­tion needs to include every­body. And that’s what I’d like to make part of my dis­cus­sion. So, thank you. It’s great to be here. Thank you very much. 

Further Reference

Paul K Wright fac­ul­ty pro­file at the UC Berkeley site.