Well, I did­n’t know that I was sup­posed to say any­thing, so I won’t say much. But the way it all start­ed was in 1964 I was at a con­fer­ence in the home­stead in Virginia. And Lick and I were sit­ting around talk­ing with Corbató, who was run­ning the time-sharing sys­tem at MIT. And Lick was talk­ing about what do we need next? And I was very inter­est­ed in that. And so he was say­ing, Well, we need a net­work to tie the machines togeth­er. We need some way to have them communicate.”

And I had seen many prob­lems of this kind already by try­ing to share infor­ma­tion that I’d put on a TX2, like the huge pho­to library that Minsky want­ed down at MIT. But we were total­ly incom­pat­i­ble. And I had to build and buy an IBM tape dri­ve and tie it to the TX2 to write a tape for him. And write the pro­grams to try and fig­ure out how to con­vert it to IBM tape. It was not fun. And it took a long time to get the data to him. But now that prob­lem has total­ly changed. Now it hap­pens instant­ly, all the time.

We have two big prob­lems ahead of us is that I real­ly wor­ry about and want to just men­tion briefly. And that is, we know now a lot more about qual­i­ty of ser­vice and that we could improve it dra­mat­i­cal­ly on the Internet. And we should be doing that, but we’re not. We’re not real­ly under­tak­ing that issue very seri­ous­ly, and we could. It will take some small changes to the net­work, but they’re going on all the time. And we’re mak­ing a huge change to v6 at the moment, so there’s lots of things are changing.

And we also need to pay a lot more atten­tion to secu­ri­ty, because I believe the net­works will be doing the secu­ri­ty work, not the com­put­ers. The com­put­ers are total­ly vul­ner­a­ble and will always be that way. We’re los­ing the game there. They’re find­ing bugs faster than we fix them. Whereas in the net­work, we see all the traf­fic and all of bots and all the Denial of Service traf­fic, and every­thing is there. And a tech­nique that was done at SRI proved to me that if you look at that com­mu­ni­ca­tions in their bot hunter which they put on a com­put­er to look at what you’re com­mu­ni­cat­ing, they can find the bot in your com­put­er because of look­ing at its communications.

Well, in the net­work we could see that, too. We could find all the bots and all the bot com­mu­ni­ca­tion, and we could find a denial of ser­vice way before it hit any­body. We could do a lot bet­ter than we’re doing, and we could add a lot more secu­ri­ty to the net­work with some pro­to­cols that I’ve just put through the ITU and the TIA. So I just rec­om­mend that peo­ple start think­ing about those two issues, because we don’t have long on the secu­ri­ty issue before it blows up. Thank you.